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Archive for October 15, 2010

Make Believe

My attempt at stream of consciousness …

Make Believe

I felt so close to him there, my body pressed against him. I could feel the warmth and his strong steady heartbeat I slightly tightened my grip around his broad neck and shoulders. Love was prominent in his strong grip around my waist, I felt it. I glanced up at his face his strong jaw line and his dimpled chin were all I could see well. His neck and jaw line were covered in small dark stubble. He was so beautiful so beautiful lying there, eyes closed, softly breathing in and out, through his nose drifting in and out of sleep. I wanted to squeeze him so tight that I could somehow fall into him, sinking underneath his skin, where we could somehow be one        forever. His eyes were a beautiful hazel blue that shimmered in the low light of my dark bedroom as if pools of shallow azure. I took one of his hands in mine and held it on his chest. Slowly running my fingertips over his rough, dry fingers, I brought his ring finger to my lips and kissed it. I ran his finger down my bottom lip which tugged on it a little bit so that my inner lip was running along his ring finger until I got to the tip and I just kissed it, bringing the top between my lips and slightly into my mouth and pulling it out again. I felt his body shake and shiver with delight – he loved it, I know he did. He ran his fingers through my soft, blonde hair with his other hand, caressing my scalp. I wanted him to know that I was holding onto him, holding on for dear life. I believed I loved him. I was going to make him believe it too.

I felt so far from her there my body pressed against another. Would she know? Could she ever know the grief I felt having another girl lie against me in her bed. The light was dark and it was difficult to make out her face. I couldn’t see her, there was no way she could see me. So I let the first tear slide out of the corner of my eye, crawl across my temple and into my ear. My eardrum heard the drop of the tear into my lobe and it rang a loud warning, sending chills throughout my body. Who was this girl? Did I even know her? Her face was soft, but it wasn’t my girl. No, she had left me – no, I had left her … we had left each other just six short weeks ago. I wanted to squeeze this girl so tight – so tight that I could sink into her, be one with her for a split second pass through her and be out on the other side where I could somehow be happy again, still hearing her voice call to me, in my ear, where my dry, somber tears were now falling. My body kept shivering. Stop it. Stop, pull it together, man, she’s going to know something’s wrong I don’t want to hear her voice … Let’s pretend. I’m going to pretend. Close my eyes and think it’s mine kissing my finger where there ought to be a ring, sliding her fingertips between my fingers. Not this girl, not tonight. So I ran my fingers through my beloved’s silky black hair and made love to her that night even though I knew … It was already over. I had to pretend to make myself believe that it was her …

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Bulgarian Phonetics

Bulgarian Phonetics

The Bulgarian language is a member of the Slavic language family, which is a member of the Indo-European family of languages. Other members of the Slavic family include Russian, Czech, Polish, and Bosnian. Bulgarian is classified as being a South Slavic language. The Southern Slavic languages can be divided into two subgroups: Western and Eastern. The Western subgroup is composed of Serbian, Slovene, Croatian and Bosnian, and the Eastern is Bulgarian and Macedonian. Though Bulgarian and Macedonian are two recognizably different languages, Bulgarian and Macedonian are mutually intelligible. Mutual intelligibility is a linguistic term that defines a relationship between languages in which speakers of two different but genetically related languages can readily understand one another without intentional study or extraordinary effort.

The Bulgarian language is the official language of Bulgaria, and it is spoken in the European Union. It is a recognized minority language in Ukraine, Serbia, Romania, Moldova, and among emigrant communities worldwide. In total, the estimated number of people that speak Bulgarian fluently is between 9 and 12 million. It is regulated by the Institute of Bulgarian at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) in Sofia, Bulgaria.

This phonetic data is not representative of the whole Bulgarian language. This data represents the speech of only one consultant, a 52 year old woman from Plovdiv, the Southern Central part of Bulgaria, known as the Thracian valley. She speaks standard Bulgarian and not a specific dialect. The only thing typical of the Plovdiv area is that speakers tend to make some unrounded close-mid front vowels /e/ an unrounded tense close front vowel /i/. Overall, she has spent 14 years in the United States, but she spends 3 months a year in Bulgaria.

Diacritics

In the transcriptions which can be found on appendix A, the syllabic consonant and primary stress marker diacritics didn’t exist in the character viewer on my MacBook Pro. I replaced the nonexistent diacritics with the closest character I could find. So primary stress is marked with this character ( ˡ ) and syllabic consonants have a dot instead of a line under them, e.g. /ṃ/.  Also the small, circular voiceless diachritic is not directly under the consonant to which it is referring. It is to the left of the consonant phoneme, between the phoneme character that comes before it and the voiceless consonant.

Stress

The raw data for stress can be found in Appendix A.

Bulgarian is a stress language. Like all stress languages, Bulgarian shows evidence of having one syllable in every word that has primary stress. Most of the words have primary stress that falls on the first syllable. 32 out of 50 words, 64% of the words had primary stress that fell on the initial syllable. Of these 32 words, 17, or 53.1% of them are two syllables. 32, or 64% of the words in the data are two syllables. So, a little more than half, about 53% of two syllable words have primary stress that falls on the word initial syllable. 6 of the 50 words, or 12% had three syllables. Only one word had four syllables: walk: [rəsˡhɤ̥ᴣdṃsej]. This is technically the infinitive, which could be the reason as to why it is longer than all of the other words in the data. Primary stress falls on both the first, second, and third syllables in three syllable words. In the four syllable word [rəsˡhɤ̥ᴣdṃsej], stress falls on the second syllable.

Sounds that occur in Bulgarian, but not in English.

Bulgarian does not use places of articulation that are different from English’s. Both are Indo-European languages, so it’s no surprise. However, Bulgarian has the alveolar trill, which is evident throughout a majority of Indo-European languages.

Some sounds that occur in English but not in Bulgarian

Though Bulgarian has syllabic consonants, it only has syllabic nasals. English has both syllabic nasals and syllabic approximants. Also, English has a lot of aspiration in its words, especially voiceless stops. Throughout the data, aspiration is minimal in Bulgarian. In addition, English makes use of both the voiced and unvoiced interdental fricatives, while Bulgarian does not.

Vowels

The vowel chart can be found in Appendix B

The Bulgarian language consists of seven primary vowels: the unrounded tense close front vowel /i/, the unrounded close-mid front vowel /e/, the unrounded open-mid front vowel /ɛ/, the unrounded open front vowel /a/, the mid central schwa /ə/, the unrounded close-mid back vowel /ɤ/, and the rounded close-mid back vowel /o/; as well as one diphthong, the unrounded open front onglide /ja/. Bulgarian primary vowels include all four of the unrounded front vowels. There were other vowels recorded, but they appear significantly less frequently than the primary vowels. They are the close-mid /I/, the rounded close-mid central vowel /ɵ/, the front /æ/, the central /ɐ/, the rounded open-mid back vowel /ɔ/, the close back vowel /ʊ/, and the rounded close back vowel /u/. The data also had the diphthongs: the close-mid front onglide /je/, the unrounded close-mid front onglide /je/, the unrounded close-mid front offglide /ej/, the  rounded close-mid central onglide /jɵ/, and the rounded open-mid back offglide /ɔj/. The most common vowels are the /i/, /e/, and /ə/, all three appearing more than twenty times throughout the fifty words in isolation. The schwa unlike in English, is not an unstressed vowel. It is actually a letter sound in the Cyrillic alphabet.

Vowel Length

The raw data for vowel lengths can be found in Appendix C.

I determined the length of vowels in different word positions from only the vowels in the words that are said in isolation. It’s easy to determine word position sounds if the word is said in isolation. In context, it’s not as easy to tell if a vowel is an initial, medial, or final word sound. There were breaks in the speech of the phrases, but that doesn’t necessarily mean that those short pauses in speech were between words.

Like English, vowel lengthening in Bulgarian is most common when a vowel is a word final sound. With every one of the primary vowels and the primary diphthong, the average vowel length for the word final position was longer than the same vowel being a word medial or initial sound. The only vowel sound that appears as a word initial sound is /e/. /ɛ/ is the only vowel to appear as a word medial sound only. The longest average length of a vowel is /a/ at an average length of .1884 seconds. The shortest vowel is /i/, whose average length is .0982 seconds. The shortest vowel is closed and the longest is open. Can I deduce that the longer vowels are going to be when the mouth is more open and the shorter vowels when the mouth is more closed? No, because the rest of the middle vowels are a mixture of different lengths and their hierarchical vowel length does not correspond to where they are produced in the mouth.

Every primary vowel’s average length is longer in words in isolation than in words in context. This is most likely due to my consultant producing all sounds more quickly in the phrases and articulating and fully pronouncing each sound in the words in isolation.

On and Offglides

The raw data for on and offglides can be found in Appendix D.

The only diphthongs that exist in the data set are on and offglides. The most common use of the palatal approximate /j/ is most commonly an onglide instead of an offglide, its most common use in English. The most common diphthong is the unrounded open front  onglide /ja/. It appears more than twice as frequently as any other diphthong. The diphthong is usually a word medial sound, being the second or third sound in the word. However, the diphthong is also uttered as a word final sound, but is never a word initial sound. The only glide that is a word initial sound is the rounded close-mid central onglide /jɵ/. The second most common diphthongs are the close-mid front onglide /je/ and offglide. The offglide is most commonly a word final sound and the onglide is most commonly a word medial sound.

Nasalization

Nasalization of vowels does not occur enough in the data to say that it is necessary to nasalize certain vowels when speaking Bulgarian or that nasalization can determine meaning. Nasalization only occurs twice. Once with the unrounded close-mid front vowel /e/: vegetable: [ˡzɛlẽntʃok] and once with the rounded close-mid back vowel /o/ meat: [ˡmɛsõ]. The /e/ nasalization is most likely due to the alveolar nasal that follows it. However, there are other vowels that precede an Alveolar Nasal /n/ that are not nasalized. Some examples are: mountain: [pɫəˡnina], one: [e̥dˡin], and woman: [̥ᴣejˡna]. Also, vowels that precede a Bilabial Nasal /m/ are not nasalized either. Examples are earth: [̥ˡzImja], eat: [jɵm], time: [vɾɛˡme]. Time for /m/ and mountain for /n/ do not nasalize the proceeding vowel probably because the vowel is the final sound in an unstressed syllable while the nasal that follows is the onset of the stressed syllable. Therefore, the nasalization may not affect the vowel. There’s a similar problem with woman. However, I’m not sure if diphthongs can be nasalized anyway, since they require the movement of the mouth as air passes through it to create the glide.

The nasalized rounded close-mid back vowel /õ/ being a final word sound is intriguing. Reasons as to why this specific vowel was nasalized as a word final sound are unclear since /o/ is a word final sound in other words but isn’t nasalized. Two examples of this non-nasalization are clothing: [ˡɔbleklo] and  grain: [̥zɛrˡno]. I would need more data to examine nasalization more closely since it does not occur very frequently.

Syllabic Consonants

The raw data for syllabic consonants can be found in Appendix E.

The only consonants that are found to be syllabic in the data are the alveolar nasal /n/ and the bilabial nasal /m/. The syllabic alveolar nasal /ṇ/ appears as both a word final and a word medial sound. /ṇ/ in word final position follows both an alveolar flap /ɾ/ and a voiced labiodental fricative /v/. Syllabic bilabial nasal /m/, like syllabic /n/, is both a word medial and word final sound. /ṃ/ follows a voiced velar plosive /g/ and a voiced alveolar plosive /d/ twice. Both of the sounds that /ṃ/ follows are voiced sounds. The syllabic alveolar nasal /ṇ/ follows an alveolar lateral approximant /l/. All of the words with syllabic consonants have what speakers of English would call peculiar consonant clusters. These consonant clusters are how Bulgarian gets the syllabic nasals.

Rhotics

The raw data for rhotic vowels can be found in Appendix F.

There are eleven words and four phrases that contain an Alveolar Flap /ɾ/. Seven of the eleven words and one of the four phrases with an Alveolar Flap are followed by a rhotic vowel, and three of the words that have a /ɾ/ are followed by a non-rhotic vowel. What makes certain vowels rhotic and others not? All the unrounded front vowels are rhotic every time they follow an alveolar flap. However, /ɛ/ is both rhotic in time: [vɾɛme] and  non-rhotic in leader: [liɾɛr].

The most common rhotic vowel is the unrounded open front vowel /a/.  However, there are rhotic vowels that appear significantly less frequently than /a/: the unrounded open-mid front vowel /ɛ/, the unrounded close-mid front vowel /e/ , and the unrounded close front vowel /i/. The rhotic vowels are of all degrees of openness, but they are all articulated at the front of the mouth and are unrounded. The non-rhotic vowels that follow an alveolar flap are the unrounded open-mid front vowel /ɛ/, schwa /ə/, and the unrounded open front onglide /ja/. /ɛ/ is the only vowel that appears both  rhotic and non-rhotic following an alveolar flap /ɾ/. However, if concluded by this data set that all vowels that are front and unrounded are rhotic following an alveolar flap /ɾ/, the fact that /ɛ/ is non-rhotic in the word leader [liɾɛr], could be attributed to its environment. No words that contain a rhotic vowel following /ɾ/ are directly followed by a rhotic alveolar trill /r/.

Aspiration

Aspiration occurs twice in the data. Once in book: [kʰnigʌ] and again in house: [kʰəʃtɤ]. Only the voiceless velar plosive /k/ is aspirated, and only when it is a word initial sound. The aspiration in house could be because a mid central vowel /ə/ follows it, but the aspiration of /k/ in book is interesting since an alveolar nasal, a closed mouth sound, follows it. Neither English or Bulgarian distinguish meaning by aspiration.

Voiceless Consonants

The raw data for devoicing of consonants can be found in Appendix G.

There are five consonants in the data set that are devoiced: the alveolar fricative /z/, the postalveolar fricative /ᴣ/, the labiodental fricative /v/, the velar plosive /g/, and the alveolar plosive /d/. The most common devoicing is of the fricatives /z/ and /ᴣ/. /z/ is devoiced before an unrounded front vowel as in earth: [̥zImja], before an unrounded open-mid front vowel as in grain: [̥zɛrno], and before an unrounded close front vowel as in language: [e̥zik]. It is devoiced in both a word initial position and a word medial. /ᴣ/ is devoiced in word initial, medial, and final sounds, man: [mʊ̥ᴣ], walk: [rəshɤ̥ᴣdmsej], and woman: [̥ᴣejna]. There is no particular pattern for the devoicing of the postalveolar fricative /ᴣ/. /d/ is devoiced as both a word initial and word medial sound as in one: [e̥din] and tree: [̥dʊɾvo] . /v/ and /g/ are the last two consonants that are devoiced. These consonants were devoiced only once each, /v/ in word initial position as in water: [̥voda], and /g/ in word medial position as in  bed: [ˡle̥gɫɤ].

Syllabic Structure

The raw data for syllabic structure can be found in Appendix H.

Consonant clusters are both at the beginning and end of words. The most common amount of consonant sounds in a row is two, though the most in a row in the data is three. Bulgarian’s Maximum Onset Principle (MOP) is the same as English, three. MOP is a “phonotactic principle which determines the number and permissible sequence of consonants in the onsets of syllables for a specific language” (Charkova). However, unlike English, Bulgarian’s MOP consonant clusters can be more than just /stɹ/. Consonant clusters of three include /sgɾ/ in building: [sgɾadə], /str/ in sister: [sIstra], and /gsm/ in smile: [gsmifka]. /sgɾ/ and /gsm/ are both word initial sounds, and /str/ is a word medial sound. According to the data, Bulgarian syllables are usually open, that is they end in a vowel and lack a final consonant sound, known as the coda, which is part of the rhyme. The rhyme is composed of the nucleus, otherwise known as the vowel, and the coda. A Bulgarian syllable’s structure is more likely to have an onset than a coda.

Words that are different in the context of a phrase than when in isolation.

The raw data for Words that are different in the context of a phrase than when in isolation can be found in Appendix I.

The word tall, while in isolation, has a rounded open-mid back vowel /ɔ/, but when said in the context of the sentence How tall is the mountain?, [visɔk] becomes [visokI], a rounded close-mid back vowel. Mountain [pɬənina] possesses an unrounded tense close front vowel /i/ when said in isolation, but when said in the context of the same sentence, has an /I/.

Drink [pjə] has a schwa onglide while said in isolation, but an Unrounded Tense Close Front vowel /i/ when said in the phrase Eat and drink.

In the sentence The red book is on the bed [tʃeɾvɛnətə knig enaleglɤt], the word red [tʃeɾvɛn] has a schwa between the flap and the voiced labiodental fricative /v/. Red also changes the unrounded open-mid front vowel and the alveolar nasal /ɛn/ to a syllabic alveolar nasal /ṇ/. The voiceless velar plosive /k/ in Book [kʰnigʌ], while said in isolation, is aspirated, but said in the context of the sentence, it becomes unaspirated.

Two Birds [ dvɛ ptitʃki] has an unrounded open-mid front vowel /ɛ/, but when said in isolation, two contains an unrounded close-mid front vowel offglide /ej/.

In the sentence I eat meat and vegetables [az̥jam mesɔj ̥zelentʃutsi], eat has an unrounded open front vowel /a/, yet when said in isolation, it contains a rounded close-mid central vowel /ɵ/. The word meat [mescɔj] consists of both an unrounded open-mid front vowel /ɛ/ and a rounded open-mid back vowel offglide /ɔj/ when said in the context of the sentence, but the /ɛ/ changes to a close-mid front vowel and the /ɔj/ changes to a nasalized rounded close-mid back vowel /õ/.

In the sentence The tall woman smiles [̥v̥isɔkətə ̥ᴣənæsjo smik̥va], the voiced labiodental fricative in tall [visɔk] is devoiced, but when said in isolation, the /v/ is voiced. The unrounded front vowel, the ash /æ/ in woman is an unrounded open vowel /a/ when said in isolation.

Said in isolation, the word forest [gɤɾa] contains an Unrounded Close-mid Back vowel /ɤ/, but in the context of the sentence The forest is dark, the vowel becomes rounded in the same position /o/.

In the phrase five white fish [pɛt beli ɾibi], the consonant vowel consonant sequence [eli] in the word white [beli] is an unrounded open front onglide /ja/ followed by an alveolar lateral approximate /l/ when spoken in isolation. The word fish [bɾibi] has a voiced labiodental plosive /b/ as the word-initial sound, but it is missing entirely when fish is said in the context of the phrase. Also, in isolation, the unrounded tense close front vowel /i/ in fish is a schwa /ə/.

Bibliography

Charkova, Krassimira. “Phonology Part Two Above the Segmental Level.” PowerPoint             presentation. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale Linguistics Department, IL. 23 Sept 2009.

Comrie, Bernard. 1990. The World’s Major Languages. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, Inc..

Appendix A

Bulgarian Tanscription            Stress

baby: [ˡbebe]                                     2 Syllables/1st Syllable

bed: [ˡle̥gɫɤ]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

bird: [ˡptitʃkɐ]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

black: [ˡtʃjeɾṇ]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

book: [ˡkʰnigʌ]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

brother: [bɾat]   rhotic                        1 Syllable/1st Syllable

building: [ˡsgɾadə] rhotic            2 Syllables/1st Syllable

clothing: [ˡɔbleklo]                        3 Syllables/1st Syllable

cry: [ˡbɫatʃjə]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

drink: [pjə]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

earth: [̥ˡzImja]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

eat: [jɵm]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

fish: [ˡbribə] rhotic                        2 Syllables/1st Syllable

five: [pɛt]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

forest: [ˡgɤɾa] rhotic                        2 Syllables/1st Syllable

friend: [pɾjaˡtIl]                        3 Syllables/3rd Syllable

grain: [̥zɛrˡno]                                    2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

head: [gləˡva]                                    2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

house: [kʰəˡʃtɤ]                        2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

human: [tʃoˡveʃki]                        3 Syllables/2nd Syllable

language: [e̥zˡik]                        2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

leader: [ˡliɾɛr]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

man: [mʊ̥ᴣ]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

many: [ˡnɔgo]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

meat: [ˡmɛsõ]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

grain: [̥zɛrˡno]                                    2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

mountain: [pɫəˡnina]                        3 Syllables/2nd Syllable

old: [star]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

one: [e̥dˡin]                                    2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

red: [ˡtʃeɾəvṇ]                                    3 Syllables/1st Syllable

run: [ˡbjagṃ]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

sea: [mɔˡɾe] rhotic                        2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

short: [kəs]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

sister: [sIsˡtra] rhotic                        2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

sit: [ˡsjadṃ]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

sky: [ˡnebe]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

sleep: [spja]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

smile: [gsˡmifka]                        2 Syllables/1st Syllable

sun: [slṇˡtse]                                    2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

tall: [visˡɔk]                                    2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

ten: [dɛˡsIt]                                    2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

time: [vɾɛˡme] rhotic                        2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

tree: [̥dʊɾˡvo]                                     2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

two: [dvej]                                     1 Syllable/1st Syllable

vegetable: [ˡzɛlẽntʃok]                        3 Syllables/1st Syllable

walk: [rəsˡhɤ̥ᴣdṃsej]                        4 Syllables/2nd Syllable

water: [ˡ̥voda]                                    2 Syllables/1st Syllable

white: [bjal]                                    1 Syllable/1st syllable

woman: [̥ᴣejˡna]                        2 Syllables/2nd Syllable

young: [mlat]                                    1 Syllable/1st Syllable

How tall is the mountain?: [koku visokI plenInatə]

Eat and drink: [jaʃ i pi]

What language do you speak?: [kəkə̥vIzi  gvoɾʃ]

The red book is on the bed: [tʃeɾvɛnətə knig enaleglɤt]

Two birds: [d̥vɛ ptitʃki]

A sleeping baby: [spjaʃtʊ bebe]

I eat meat and vegetables: [az̥jam mesɔj ̥zelentʃutsi]

The woman smiles: [v̥isɔkətə ̥ᴣənæsjo smik̥va]

The forest is dark: [goɾatə hetəmnə] rhotic

Five white fish: [pɛt beli ɾibi]

Appendix B

Vowels

Consonants

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p     b t            d k ɡ
Nasal m n
Trill r
Tap/Flap ɾ
Fricative f v s     z ʃ         ᴣ h
LateralFricative ɬ
Approximant j
LateralApproximant l

When symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.

Appendix C

Vowel Lengths

baby: [bebe]             e (.1146)   e (.2457)

bed: [lekɫɤ]               e (.1245)   ɤ (.2217)

bird: [ptitʃkɐ]            i (.0917)  ɐ (.2246)

black: [tʃjeɾṇ]         je (.2459)

book: [kʰnigʌ]         i (.0917)   ʌ (.2246)

brother: [bɾat]         a (.1692)

building: [sgɾadə]  a (.1892)   ə (.2216)

clothing: [ɔbleklo] ɔ (.1020)   e (.0777)  o (.2419)

cry: [bɫatʃjə]             a (.1420)  je (.1871)

drink: [pjə]              jə (.3941)

earth: [̥zImja]          I (.1350)  ja (.2580)

eat: [jɵm]                jɵ (.1374)

fish: [bribə]              i (.1490)     ə (.1719)

five: [pɛt]                   ɛ (.1789)

forest: [gɤɾa]            ɤ (.1454)     a (.2988)

friend: [pɾja]          ja (.2346)

grain: [̥zɛrno]          ɛ (.1322)      o (.1459)

head: [gləva]           ə (.1333)      a (.1544)

house: [kʰəʃtɤ]         ə (.1110)      ɤ (.1768)

human: [tʃoveʃki]   o (.1269)     e (.0829)   i (.1974)

language: [e̥zik]      e (.1619)      i (.1328)

leader: [liɾɛr]             i (.1062)     ɛ (.1576)

man: [mʊ̥ᴣ]               ʊ (.2072)

many: [nɔgo]            ɔ (.1545)     o (.1624)

meat: [mɛso]             ɛ (.0809)    õ (.2551)

moon: [luna]            u (.1995)     a (.2495)

mountain: [pɫənina]  ə (.1131)   i (.1062)    a (.2447)

old: [star]                     a (.1903)

one: [e̥din]                    e (.1436)   i (.1381)

red: [tʃeɾəvṇ]                 e (.1442)   ə (.0879)

run: [bjagṃ]                ja (.1691)   ə (.0797)

sea: [mɔɾe]                    ɔ (.1580)   e (.2445)

short: [kəs]                   ə (.0959)

sister: [sIstra]              I (.0957)    a (.2340)

sit: [sjadṃ]                  ja (.1878)

sky: [nebe]                     e (.1184)    e (.2330)

sleep: [spja]                 ja (.2717)

smile: [gsmifka]            i (.0868)   a (.2112)

sun: [slṇtse]                    e (.2693)

tall: [visɔk]                      i (.0559)   ɔ (.1635)

ten: [dɛsIt]                       ɛ (.1132)    I (.0842)

time: [vɾɛme]                   ɛ (.1653)   e (.2224)

tree: [̥dʊɾvo]                   ʊ (.0582)   o (.2161)

two: [dvej]                     ej (.2626)

vegetable: [zɛlẽntʃok]   ɛ (.0974)   ẽ (.1000)   o (.1654)

walk: [rəshɤ̥ᴣdmsej]    ə (.0429)    ɤ (.1382)   ej (.2560)

water: [̥voda]                 o (.1302)    a (.1985)

white: [bjal]                 ja (.2301)

woman: [ᴣejna]          ej (.1512)      a (.2421)

young: [mlat]               a (.1495)

How tall is the mountain?: [koku visokI plenInatə]   o (.1471)   u (.0998)   i (.0413)   o (.1374)   I (.1133)

ə (.0566)   I (.0794)   a (.1309)   ə (.1169)

Eat and drink: [jaʃ i pi]                 a (.1608)   i (.1335)   i (.3078)

What language do you speak?: [kəkəv̥Izi  gvoɾʃ]           ə (.0510)   ə (.0575)

The red book is on the bed: [tʃeɾvɛnətə knig enaleglɤt]                   e (.0879)   ɛ (.0686)   ə (.0510)   ə (.0513)

i (.1024)   e (.0879)   a (.0929)   e (.0665)   ɤ (.1227)

Two birds: [d̥vɛ ptitʃki]                  ɛ (.1260)   i (.0634)   i (.0790)

A sleeping baby: [spjaʃtʊ bebe] ja (.1573)   ʊ (.0415)

I eat meat and vegetables: [az̥jam mesɔj ̥zelentʃutsi] a (..2132)   ja (.2560)   e (.0528)   ɔj (.2185)

e (.0812)   e (.0840)   u (.0961)   i (.0503)

The woman smiles: [v̥isɔkətə ̥ᴣənæsjo smikv̥a]           i (.0279)   ɔ (.1176)   ə (.0422)   ə (.0667)   ə (.0644)

æ (.1329)   jo (.1204)   i (.0696)   a (.1423)

The forest is dark: [goɾatə hetəmnə]   o (.1059)   a (.1508)   ə (.2312)   e (.1250)   ə (.1013)   ə (.1009)

Five white fish: [pɛt beli ɾibi]                 ɛ (.1309)   e (.1005)   i (.1049)     i (.1199)    i (.1269)

Lengths of /i/

.1115 = average length of /i/ in words in isolation

.0844 = average Length of /i/ in words in context

.0982 = total average length of /i/

.1064 = average length of /i/ as an initial word medial sound

.1974 = average length of /i/ as a word final sound

Lengths of /e/

.1679 = average length of /e/ in words in isolation

.0896 = average length of /e/ in words in context

.1381 = total average length of /e/

.1141 = average length of /e/ as a word medial sound

.1527 = average length of /e/ as an word initial sound

.2429 = average length of /e/ as a word final sound

.2429 = average length of /e/ as a word final sound

Lengths of /ɛ/

.1322 = average length of /ɛ/ in words in isolation

.1123 = average Length of /ɛ/ in words in context

.1237  = total average length of /ɛ/


Lengths of /a/

.2102= average length of /a/ in words in isolation

.1484 = average length of /a/ in words in context

.1884 = total average length of /a/

.1745 = average length of /a/ as a word medial sound

.2291 = average length of /a/ as a word final sound


Lengths of /ə/

.1269 = average  length of /ə/ in words in isolation

.0809 = average length of /ə/ in words in context

.1018 =    total average length of /a/

.0948 = average length of /ə/ as a word medial sound

.1967 = average length of /ə/ as a word final sound


Lengths of /ɤ/

.1705 = average length of /ɤ/ in words in isolation

.1227 = average Length of /ɤ/ in words in context

.1609 = total average length of /ɤ/

.1418 = average length of /ɤ/ as a word medial sound

.1993 = average length of /ɤ/ as a word final sound


Lengths of /o/

.1804 = average length of /o/ in words in isolation

.1246 = average length of /o/ in words in context

.1615 = total average length of /o/

.1461 = average length of /o/ as a word medial sound

.1919 = average length of /o/ as a word final sound


Lengths of /ja/

.2207 = average length of /ja/ in words in isolation

.2067 = average length of /ja/ in words in context

.2172 = total average length of /ja/

.1956 = average length of /ja/ as a word medial sound

.2547 = average length of /ja/ as a word final sound


Appendix D

Onglides and Offglides

/ja/ earth: [̥zImja]     Word Final

friend: [pɾjatIl]            Word Medial

run: [bjagṃ]                 Word Medial

sit: [sjadṃ]                   Word Medial

sleep: [spja]                 Word Final

white: [bjaᶥ]                 Word Medial

/je/ black: [tʃjeɾṇ]     Word Medial

cry: [bɫatʃjə]                Word Final

drink: [pjə]                  Word Final

/ej/ two: [dvej]          Word Final

walk: [rəshɤ̥ᴣdmsej]  Word Final

woman: [̥ᴣejna]           Word Medial

/jɵ/ eat: [jɵm]              Word Initial

/ɔj/ I eat meat and vegetables: [ḁzjam mesɔj ̥zelentʃutsi]

Appendix E

Syllabic Consonants

black: [tʃjeɾṇ]                        n            word final

red: [tʃeɾəvṇ]                        n            word final

run: [bjagṃ]                        m            word final

sit: [sjadṃ]                        m            word final

sun: [slṇtse]                        n            word medial

walk: [rəsˡhɤ̥ᴣdṃsej]            m            word medial

Appendix F

Words with an Alveolar Tap followed by a Rhotic Vowel

brother: [bɾat]   rhotic                                    /a/

building: [sgɾadə] rhotic                        /a/

fish: [bribə]             rhotic                                    /i/

forest: [gɤɾa] rhotic                                    /a/

sea: [mɔɾe] rhotic                                    /e/

sister: [sIstra] rhotic                                    /a/

time: [vɾɛme] rhotic                                    /ɛ/

The forest is dark: [goɾatə hetəmnə]             /a/

Words with an Alveolar Tap followed by a Non-Rhotic Vowel

friend: [pɾjatIl]                                    /ja/

leader: [liɾɛr]                                                /ɛ/

red: [tʃeɾəvṇ]                                                /ə/

Five white fish: [pɛt beli ɾibi]                        /i/

Appendix G

Voiceless Consonants

bed: [le̥gɫɤ]                        g

earth: [̥zImja]                        z

grain: [̥zɛrno]                        z

language: [e̥zik]            z

man: [mʊ̥ᴣ]                        ᴣ

one: [e̥din]                        d

tree: [̥dʊɾvo]                         d

walk: [rəshɤ̥ᴣdmsej]            ᴣ

water: [̥voda]                        v

woman: [̥ᴣejna]            ᴣ

Appendix H

Syllable Structure

baby: [ˡbebe] CV‧CV

bed: [ˡle̥gɫɤ] CV‧CCV

bird: [ˡptitʃkɐ] CCV‧CCV

black: [tʃjeɾṇ] CV‧CC

book: [ˡkʰnigʌ] CCV‧CV

brother: [bɾat] CCVC

building: [ˡsgɾadə] CCCV‧CV

clothing: [ˡɔbleklo] V‧CCV‧CCV

cry: [ˡbɫatʃjə] CCV‧CV

drink: [pjə] CV

earth: [ˡ̥zImja] CVC‧V

eat: [jɵm] CVC

fish: [ˡbribə] CV‧CV

five: [pɛt] CVC

forest: [ˡgɤɾa] CV‧CV

friend: [pɾjaˡtIl] CCV‧CVC

grain: [̥zɛrˡno] CVC‧CV

head: [gləva] CCV‧CV

house: [kʰəʃtɤ] CVC‧CV

human: [tʃoveʃki] CV‧CV‧CCV

language: [e̥zik] VC‧VC

leader: [liɾɛɾ] CVC‧VC

man: [mʊ̥ᴣ] CVC

many: [nɔgo] CV‧CV

meat: [mɛso] CV‧CV

moon: [luna] CV‧CV

mountain: [pɫənina] CCV‧CV‧CV

old: [staɾ] CCVC

one: [e̥din] VC‧VC

red: [tʃeɾəvṇ] CV‧CV‧CVC

run: [bjagṃ] CV‧CC

sea: [mɔɾe] CV‧CV

short: [kəs] CVC

sister: [sIstra] CV‧CCCV

sit: [sjadṃ] CV‧CVC

sky: [nebe] CV‧CV

sleep: [spja] CCV

smile: [gsmifka] CCCV‧CCV

sun: [slṇtse] CCVC‧CCV

tall: [visɔk] CV‧CVC

ten: [dɛsIt] CV‧CVC

time: [vɾɛme] CCV‧CV

tree: [dɛɾvo] CV‧CCV

two: [dvej] CCV

vegetable: [zɛlẽntʃok] CV‧CVC‧CVC

to walk: [rəshɤ̥ᴣdmsej] CVC‧VCC‧CCV

water: [̥voda] CV‧CV

white: [bjal] CVC

woman: [ᴣejna] CV‧CV

young: [mlat] CCVC

How tall is the mountai[koku visokI plenInatə] CV‧CV CV‧CV‧CV CCV‧CV‧CV‧CV

Eat and drink: [jaʃ i pi] VC V CV

What language do you speak?: [kəkəv̥Izi  gvoɾʃ] CV‧CV‧CV‧CV CCV‧CC

The red book is on [tʃeɾvɛnətəknig enaleglɤt] CV‧CCV‧CV‧CV‧CCVC VC‧VC‧VC‧CVC

Two birds: [d̥vɛ ptitʃki] CCV CCV‧CCV

A sleeping baby: [spjaʃtʊ bebe] CCV‧CCV CV‧CV

I eat meat and vegetables: [az̥jam mesɔj ̥zelentʃutsi] VC‧VC CV‧CV CV‧CVC‧CV‧CCV

The woman smiles: [v̥isɔkətə ̥ᴣənæsjomikv̥a] CV‧CV‧CV‧CV CV‧CVC‧V‧CVC‧CV

The forest is dark: [goɾatə hetəmnə] CV‧CV‧CV CV‧CVC‧CV

Five white fish: [pɛt beli ɾibi] CVC CV‧CV CV‧CV

Appendix I

Bulgarian Words in Context Versus in Isolation

English Gloss How tall is the mountain?

Context [koku visokI plenInatə]

Isolation [visɔk][pɫənina]

English Gloss Eat and drink

Context [jaʃ i pi]

Isolation [jɵm][pje]

English Gloss What language do you speak?

Context [kəkə̥vzIzi  gvoɾʃ]

Isolation [e̥zik]

English Gloss The red book is on the table.

Context [tʃeɾvɛnətə knig enaleglɤt]

Isolation [tʃjeɾəvṇ]  [kʰnigʌ][lekɫo]

English Gloss Two birds

Context [d̥vɛ ptitʃki]

Isolation [dvej][ptitʃkɐ]

English Gloss A sleeping baby

Context [spjaʃtʊ bebe]

Isolation [spja]   [bebe]

English Gloss I eat meat and vegetables

Context [az̥jam mesɔj ̥zelentʃutsi]

Isolation [jɵm][mɛsõ][zelẽntʃok]

English Gloss The woman smiles

Context [v̥isɔkətə ̥ᴣənæsjo smik̥va]

Isolation [visɔk]   [ᴣejna]  [gsmifkə]

English Gloss The forest is dark

Context [goɾatə hetəmnə]

Isolation [gɤɾa]

English Gloss Five white fish

Context [pɛt beli ɾibi]

Isolation [pɛt bjaᶥ bribə]

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